Monday, 28 August 2017

EOI- Berkshire weaners and day old chicks

This week has been productive so far. 

We saw the arrival of Sage and Smokey's most recent, and most likely last litter of piglets. (As we have a replacement boar, and other bloodline waiting). 











She delivered 10 healthy little porkers, and so far we have counted at least 5 girls, so will be taking expressions of interest, as they should be ready for re-homing early October.














We have also begun hatching so chicks. Our initial hatchlings will form part of our next generation. However we should hopefully have day old chicks available for both 
Sussex- Light, Silver & Platinum (potential splits) and Ross 308 broilers from September.

We are based within the Mackay region (Queensland) and maybe contacted via email 
maesydelyn.qld

@gmail.com or  Facebook

Please note we are not a commercial entity, we are a hobby farm and only occasionally offer excess livestock for sale. 

Composting

Following Plasticfree-July I felt it was apt that we revisit another waste-reducing action that can be done on a variety of scales; so it doesn’t matter if you live in an urban area, or have a veggie patch or access to a community garden- and that’s composting.
Composting uses the natural process of decomposition to convert organic waste matter into a nutrient-rich soil you can use on your garden. So it is a great way to reduce landfill, with the added benefit of creating your own compost, mulch or even worm tea (depending on your method) … so win, win all round!

Composting is most definitely not hard (though if you follow this blog you will notice I have made a few mistakes along the way), however if I can manage it, anyone can!
It is basic to set up (regardless of the method)
  1. Choose a shady spot to start your compost heap or to position your compost bin/wormfarm. There are many types of composting bins available - some require mixing and some don't.
  2. Add to your compost in layers of food scraps, garden clippings and paper.
  3. Keep your compost moist, but not wet and aerate it about once a week.
  4. When your compost is dark and crumbly (somewhere between six weeks and four months) dig it into your garden, spread it on top as mulch or use in plant pots.
Anyone who has read the older posts would know we began composting using a worm farm, as I had an alternative motion- producing our own worm supply for our bio system (sewerage from the house).  But over time we have set up a few here and there

A (commercially available) compost bin in the veg patch for direct disposal of weeds- this may sound crazy, but I actually keep some ‘weeds’ in the veg patch as they off great ground cover and compost/mulch rather well. Being so close to the pig pen and paddock I can also include manure to assist its breaks down before putting it on the garden- as its high in nitrogen (but we’ll get back to that)

Image result for compost binAdvantages
The bin has no initial construction and is easy to install.
The base is perforated to allow contact between the ground/earth (and its inhabitants) and your compostable, however it can be quickly and easily relocated.
The front hatch allows for direct access to the lowest materials (compost), whilst the lid allows you to continue to top it up.
And it is all discretely hidden away- ideal for small gardens and those with curious pets or children (and yes I have both, so I can get away with saying it).
Disadvantages
Fills up quickly
Not to easy to aerate if necessary
Can become mouldy in the tropical climate, due to minimal ventilation

A compost heap in the chook pen, for breaking down chicken manure, bedding and garden clippings.
Advantage-
Cheap to set up.
Allows the chickens to assist in the breakdown, as they scratch for extra protein snacks (could be messy in an urban set up though)
Well ventilated
Can easily see the compost progress and aerate or ‘mix up’
These also work well on large scales as you may set up various stages along side each other.
Disadvantages
Visible
Accessible to curious animals and children

A worm farm in the herb patch; as its en-route to the shed/bin etc and reminds me to feed the worms their share of food scraps. As our biggest issue here been having sufficient scraps for the worms (as generally the animals get first dibbs).

Now these are not your generic earth worms (though that is what you rely on in a ground based composter- though adding these would not hurt your garden, but they may disperse.

Worm farms can be homemade (beware of residual chemicals and pesticides on materials- as may have been the reason our initial attempt didn’t work), or you can buy ready built versions maybe purchased from most garden centres or hardware store and online (we picked our up second hand from www.gumtree.com.au). 
 







Worms are also widely available through these places and online supplier. Our initial batch were purchased online (www.wormsrus.com.au) and we were amazed that they were delivered via express post . But also try community garden groups and online forums (these have become increasingly popular for trading good and items)  

Advantages
Discrete and can be set up in most situations (on patios etc)
Does not require as much space, as the worm assist the breakdown and is much quicker
Also produces worm tea- liquid fertiliser, a great addition to any garden
Disadvantages
You need to feed it- it cannot be forgotten about like the other options, or your worms leave or perish.

Once you have decided on the best system and location suitable for your home/set up, then there’s what to put in it. The obvious is household scraps, we make a habit of keeping a small bucket in the kitchen designated for food scraps (we do this for animals anyway). But you can purchase decorative little bins/ tubs from any retainers now so it doesn’t have to be unsightly.
I would advise washing it out regularly (after use), or lining it with newspaper can help. You can get biodegradable bags too but then I consider this an additional purchase/ generated waste item. But its personal preference; if it makes it more likely that you would use it.   
You can also compost paper, cardboard, tea bags, coffee grounds, vacuum cleaner dust, lint from a dryer, animal manure, used animal bedding, garden clipping… It’s probably easier to discuss what not to compost;
  • Meat, bones or fish scraps as they will attract pests
  • Perennial weeds or diseased plants, as these may be spread.
  • Banana peels and rinds of citrus fruits (like orange peel), these are very acidic and can affect the pH balance- and definitely do not include if you have worms
  • Dairy products (other than egg shells)
  • Grease and oils
Garden/animal waste
·         We do compost sawdust from the chicken coups, however this should be mixed or scattered thinly to avoid clumping.
·         Also pet manure (by pets I mean dogs, cats etc not livestock) can be composted (and many council encourage this now. However this should be confined to a specific composter (only for this purpose) and not used on gardens or areas that may come into contact with people or anything else that maybe consumed.
But otherwise it is a case of trying to balance your compostable scraps- it breaks down to a mixture of carbons and nitrogens- essentially you need both to encourage a ‘hot’ environment at its centre. This is why we aerate, to assist with the break down.
Material
Carbon/Nitrogen
Notes to consider
Kitchen scraps scraps
Nitrogen
 add with dry carbon items- no meat, fish or bone
eggshells
neutral
 best when crushed
leaves
Carbon
 leaves break down faster when shredded
grass clippings
Nitrogen
 add in thin layers so they don’t mat into clumps
garden plants
 use disease-free plants only
Pruning’s (trees/shrubs)
Carbon
 woody pruning’s are slow to break down
Animal bedding
Carbon

Green comfrey leaves
Nitrogen
 excellent compost ‘activator’
Flowers, cuttings
Nitrogen
 chop up any long woody stems
Seaweed and kelp
Nitrogen
 apply in thin layers; good source for trace minerals
Wood ash
Carbon
 only use ash from clean materials; sprinkle lightly
Manures
Nitrogen
Chicken manure is excellent compost ‘activator’
Horse manure requires a long time to decompose to avoid weed-spread
Pet manure should be composted separately- not for consumption or contact- dispose responsibly
Coffee grounds
Nitrogen
 filters may also be included (and some pods now)
Tea leaves/bags
Nitrogen
 remove metal staples if bags
Newspaper /
Shredded paper
Carbon
 avoid using glossy paper and coloured inks
Cardboard
Carbon
 shred material to avoid matting
Corn cobs, stalks
Carbon
 slow to decompose; best if chopped up
Dryer lint
Carbon
 best if from natural fibers
Sawdust
Carbon
 high carbon levels; add in layers to avoid clumping
Wood chips / pellets
Carbon
 high carbon levels; use sparingly
As mentioned earlier compost can be ready in as little as 6 weeks, but may take months depending on its composition and how you tend to it. It is ready when it turns to a dark rich colour, and maybe used in garden beds, pots etc.
I admit I am a lazy composter-but then that’s the advantage of having a few scattered about. However, if your composting process is slow, it might mean that your compost isn’t hot enough, or you composition isn’t aerated enough. Try one of the following:
  • Increase the amount of times you are turning your pile
  • Increase nitrogen-rich material, such as veggie scraps or green garden vegetation. See the table above
  • Ensure your compost is moist- so water but do not soak
  • Keep it warm, try covering the compost with some insulation
Your compost should be moist (not wet), so sprinkle with water occasionally and turn- remember the centre should be warmer and this is what breaks it down, but it still requires oxygen or it may ‘starve’- especially if using worms.

Chick, chick, chick, chick, chicken lay a little egg for me... and hopefully hatch too



So we have kept chickens for a number of years now; even before we began our smallholding here at Maes-y-Delyn. However this has probably been our longest length of time we have seen with the least number of eggs.

Chickens ‘not producing’ is a common concern for owners. And we are often asked about our egg numbers; though this discussion generally occurs during winter, when the days are shorter and the nights are colder (yes I guess Queensland chickens are acclimatised too). Though the truth is, there are many and varied reasons why your flock maybe 'eggless'.


In our case (on this occasion) there has been a few combining factors;



For the most part we have been patiently waiting for most of our flocks to come of age. 
It is worth noting that age maybe breed dependent. Whilst the average age for a pullet (young chicken, pre-laying) to begin laying is approx 18-20 weeks. This may however be  as late as 8 months for some breeds. And whilst  older birds will produce eggs less frequently, this again is breed dependant; as some will lay well, well into old age- such as our Indian Game girls- although these do not lay that well to begin with!
Some of our older girls (4-5 years), so do lay more sporadically. 
The weather has been a HUGE factor this year; those that should have been laying seem to have been affected by Cyclone Debbie and since that we have had an indecisive winter. In that we have had a few cold days then it would be milder for a week or 2, then a few cold days/mornings again. And the other factor being their breed; each has their own features laying capacity is one.



Now there are a number of old wives tales out there, that claim to get your flock laying. To be honest most I would take with a pinch of salt, others are just common sense or good practice.  

I will admit to attempting one toward the end of our recent egg drought; adding yoghurt laced with cayenne pepper to their feed, and by all accounts we did start getting eggs- though I am highly skeptical that the two events were exclusively related.



As I said some are just good practice, yoghurt providing additional good digestive bacteria, as with humans and the cayenne pepper, as with any chillies variety being a natural wormer for chooks (though our flock are regularly wormed).   And as I had some homemade yoghurt that smelled slightly sour following a few days away, I figured why not put it to good use.




Feed or diet is often a contributing factor for an egg drought, albeit age, breed, weather (heat or cold), access to light (shorter days will reduce laying capacity), moulting (they need the rest to recover from this natural process).




So if your truly concerned adjusting or varying diet can or may help… or is worth a try. Many claim switching feeds can help. Our feed make up is seasonal; as its locally produced (well from within the state at least) so changes in grain make up, though the protein percentage remains similar. So am not too sure of the science behind that claim, although we don’t like eating the same thing everyday, so I guess why would your chickens. I do however agree that stage specific feeds are a good idea, as the protein component and medications (if added) are appropriate for your birds stage and requirements (younger and pre-laying birds require a higher percentage of protein).


So that’s another addition,

Protein.

Many fail to realise that chickens are (or should be) natural foragers and this includes insects, amongst other meats. And they require protein to grow, develop and renew feathers etc.  So upping their protein can really help; worms and sunflower seeds make great high protein treats. I’ve even heard of people feeding their chickens dog food.



Calcium

Necessary for producing hard egg shells (not flimsy, soft ones). So access to plenty of leafy greens and shell grit. Yes they will eat their own shells, just I’d advise crushing them (this is easier if dried). This way they don’t associate eating egg shell with eating their own eggs- as once they start they will not stop!

Also yoghurt can make an interesting option as it provides both protein and calcium, with added benefits. Though I wouldn’t encourage this as a regular inclusion.



Worming

As mentioned above, intestinal health will affect all aspects of your flocks ability to function. It’s all well and good providing good food, but they have to digest and ingest it. So regular worming is a must, whether this be through medication or natural dietary inclusions. We use both, for good measure.

Good additions for good health and natural worming can include;

Apple cider vinegar

Pumpkin and cucumber seeds

Garlic

Chillies



Anyway, back to our current flocks. At present, we are running 3 breeds; Sussex, Indian Game and Ross 308. Although, to be honest I am often reluctant to describe the Ross 308 as a breed, as I consider them more of a commercial hybrid. Although they have been that well established now their number s possibly outweigh most heritage or traditional breeds such as our Sussex and Indian Games.



The Sussex are our laying flock. They are considered a dual purpose breed, as they are/can be quite large in stature and lay approx. 300 eggs per annum.

Due to a few unfortunate incidents, our flock numbers depleted, meaning those we raised became replacements as opposed to supplement stock, and also meant we required a new rooster (as our previous boy would have been Dad to most of the girls). So this has been an interesting outcome, but we’ll come back to that.



 
Our Indian Games are our heritage breed meat bird. This breed has been used to sire various commercial birds over generations. However they are in-frequent layers, laying up to 100 eggs per year (and possibly why they are rare) and do not fair well in confinement, however they are hardy and thrive in free range conditions.

We generally have a clutch of eggs over a month – six weeks that we incubate ,with the occasional free range nester- 3 times per year, and they generally lay around July-August. So this year’s cycle appear to have been upset by the weather, with a few of our girls laying their first eggs over the weekend.



The Ross 308’s are a trial that we acquired as day old chicks in December last year. So whilst most migrated to the table (or freezer) whilst the 4 remaining girls and separately sourced rooster have been kept for breeding.


I always said we would never keep boilers again, due to our previous experience. However these were supposed to be the ‘parent flock’ so lighter, slower growing and reasonably good egg layers- the broilers we have had in the past could not/ would not have made it to laying age! So we are trailing them as table birds; as our excess Indian Games make fantastic table birds, but we never produce enough of them.  

Since laying began, they are now producing 1-3 eggs per day (from 4 hens), the greatest issue with incubating has been the frequency of ‘double yolkers’… these eggs are massive! And whilst they are fantastic for eating/cooking purposes, they are not great for incubating purposes; as if one yolk is fertile then the other becomes rotten, and if both are fertile then they stop developing, presumably due to insufficient room or nutrients.


Old girls with their new Boo, I mean Roo
So, so far the incubators have been running for roughly a month. We have 24 chicks, mostly Sussex with a couple of 308’s.   
The Sussex had surprising, or possibly unsurprising genetic results. As I said we needed to replace our rooster. So we managed to source a ‘Coronation’ Sussex, as we currently have light and coronation hens. However the rooster appeared to have too much colour to be a Coronation, although also too much white to be a ‘Platinum/lavender’.  But I think it’s safe to say he’s the latter given the mix of lights, silver and platinum chicks that we have hatched! Not that that’s an issue for us, as its still the same breed, just another interesting colour addition to our flock.



OK so I’ll quickly go over my reasoning, as genetics is a funny thing! I have a grasp of the Indian Game colouring combinations, and am trying to grasp the Sussex, so am doing my best (please feel free to contribute if you have experience with this).

Our Coro and Light stock
 
Whilst both the ‘platinum’ or lavender as they are commonly known here in Queensland, (please don’t get upset over generic naming terms used here) and Coronation Sussex are both from the Sussex breed, where the lavender colour has been introduced- just the reverse colour distribution. The ‘platinum’ is the variation of the Silver Sussex and the Coronation is the variation from the Light. But here’s where it gets complicated, as Silver Sussex are also often bred back to Lights to improve leg colour and feather quality, so Silvers are also a variation of the Lights. So my multi coloured flock will be an interesting development…
  
As for our other breeds, we will hopefully we will hatch a few more 308’s and now Indian Games over coming weeks. Though we did have an equipment malfunction with one of our incubators faltering this week. Meaning the eggs fell below temperature overnight, so am not hopeful for the few 308 eggs that were due to hatch this week. Am just waiting to candle the Sussex eggs that we’d set in there the day before, as it takes 48hours before they begin to develop, so the temperature loss shouldn’t be any different to being at room temperature, if they hadn’t started… so only time will tell. But for the moment we are monitoring this piece of equipment with extra scrutiny as we cannot afford to miss the Indian season!


Our 'Bear' loves tending to her flock
 










As far as equipment goes we now operate 2 incubators, both require manual turning, so nothing specifically fancy. Am not going to go into equipment reviews now, though we have borrowed automated incubators in the past and found that they were less successful for us; though this is our personal experience and others would say otherwise.  The hand on approach works for us, as manually turning them twice a day means we also check the temperatures and water levels regularly and was how we were able to identify the recent malfunction. Am just grateful the majority of the egg we had set were in the other incubator. The few eggs that had progressed that were in there, had been separated for hatching.
I have also heard some breeder who produce multiple breeds claim that the number of times an egg requires turning varies from breed to breed; therefore they only use manual incubators.